In this address which was presented by AVL to the ASEAN Judicial Conference being held in Bangkok, Thailand, Hon. Michael Kirby, on Wednesday 4 October 2023 addressed the issue of the Bangalore Principles on Judicial Integrity.  He had played a part in the formulation of those principles in 2000.  The specific contribution on this occasion was the need to add to the Bangalore Principles an additional principle of “Courage”.  Judges must be more than mechanical arbiters of the law and facts of a case.  They must also show courage where this is necessary.  He instanced the decision of the High Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland [No.2] (1992) 175 CLR 1.  He also referred to personal courage by judges faced with hostile governments or communities or even the profession.  In these circumstances (as in revealing a judge’s sexuality, culture or religion) personal courage is called for.